Entirely dependent on your research questions and methodology, the data collected will be different depending on your research purpose and goals. As a brief review, here are the methods, instruments, data analysis for the different methodological approaches:
|Methods||Instrument||Kinds of Data||Analysis||Framework|
|Quantitative (deductive)||Pre-determined, instrument-based questions, experimental design, or survey||structured interviews, surveys, performance data, observational data, census data||Statistical analysis and interpretation||Postpositivist|
|Mixed Methods||Both predetermined and emerging methods-sequential, convergent, transformative||Both open and close ended questions, multiple forms of both numerical and non-numerical data||Statistical analysis and text analysis||Pragmatic|
|Qualitative (inductive)||Emerging methods, Grounded Theory., Ethnographic, Narrative, Phenomenological, Case Study||Interview data, observational data, document data, audiovisual data||Text and image analysis||Transformative Social Constructivists, Postmodernist,
The types of data collected using quantitative methods (Creswell & Creswell, 2018; Bouma et al., 2012) include:
Sampling in Quantitative Methods
In quantitative research, getting a sample size that is a cross section of the population looking to be studied is the goal. It is called probability sampling. It is important that there can be generalizability, and randomization within the sample population. There are many different types of probability sampling. Once you have determined the hypothesis to be tested and the measurements and variables you will examine in your study, you can determine which method of probability sampling is best (Creswell & Creswell, 2018).
|Tip: when constructing a survey, questionnaire, interview protocol, try to match each question with your research questions, so that you are sure to get the data you are looking for to answer your research questions.|
The types of data collected using qualitative methods (Miles et al., 2018; Creswell & Poth, 2018) include:
Sampling in Qualitative Methods
There are several different types of non-probability sampling in qualitative research. Most of the time, the sampling technique depends on the kind of approach you are taking. However, four of the most common sampling methods are (Stratton, 2021; Creswell & Creswell, 2018):
|Tip: Regardless of your methodology, it is important to justify where you are collecting your data, how, and from whom. Often, these are called descriptive statistics, which serve to give context to your study. You are required to be sure that your participants are aware of the purpose of the study, know that they can back out at any time, understand the confidentiality of your study, and are aware of any risks to themselves and others (See Research on Human Subjects - IRB section).|
Bouma, G. D., Ling, R., & Wilkinson, L. (2012). The research process (2nd Canadian ed.). Oxford University Press.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (5th ed.). Sage.
Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2018). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. Sage.
Stratton, S. (2021). Population research: Convenience sampling strategies. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 36(4), 373-374. doi:10.1017/S1049023X21000649